Moulvibazar is in Sylhet, a district to the North-East of Bangladesh. It is 2,707 km² in area, and has a population of 1.38 million. It is situated between 24.10 degree 24.35 degree north latitude and between 90.35 degree and 91.20-degree east longitude. It is surrounded by Sylhet District in the north, Habiganj District in the west and Indian States of Assam and Tripura in the east and south respectively.
The main rivers of the district are the Manu, the Dholoi and the Juri which flow from India. Every year during the rainy season, when there is excessive rainfall in India, the surplus water flows through these rivers and causes floods in low-lying parts of Moulvibazar (for example, the villages of Balikhandi and Shampashi on the northern side of the river Manu). Unless the rivers are properly dredged the floods can be devastating. In the last few years Moulvibazar has had a muti-million dollar flood defence system built, which is the only one like it in the whole country.